# URIs

A request can only be sent if the request method & URI are defined. To represent URIs, sttp comes with a Uri case class, which captures all the parts of an address.

To specify the request method and URI, use one of the methods on the request definition corresponding to the name of the desired HTTP method: .post, .get, .put etc. All of them accept a single parameter, the URI to which the request should be sent (these methods only modify the request definition; they don’t send the requests).

The Uri class is immutable, and can be constructed by hand, but in many cases the URI interpolator will be easier to use.

## URI interpolator

Using the URI interpolator it’s possible to conveniently create Uri instances, for example:

import sttp.client3._
import sttp.model._

val user = "Mary Smith"
val filter = "programming languages"

val endpoint: Uri = uri"http://example.com/$user/skills?filter=$filter"

assert(endpoint.toString ==
"http://example.com/Mary%20Smith/skills?filter=programming+languages")


Note the uri prefix before the string and the standard Scala string-embedding syntax ($user, $filter).

Any values embedded in the URI will be URL-encoded, taking into account the context (e.g., the whitespace in user will be %-encoded as %20D, while the whitespace in filter will be query-encoded as +). On the other hand, parts of the URI given as literal strings (not embedded values), are assumed to be URL-encoded and thus will be decoded when creating a Uri instance.

All components of the URI can be embedded from values: scheme, username/password, host, port, path, query and fragment. The embedded values won’t be further parsed, except the : in the host part, which is commonly used to pass in both the host and port:

import sttp.client3._

// the embedded / is escaped
println(uri"http://example.org/${"a/b"}") // http://example.org/a%2Fb // the embedded / is not escaped println(uri"http://example.org/${"a"}/${"b"}") // http://example.org/a/b // the embedded : is not escaped println(uri"http://${"example.org:8080"}")
// http://example.org:8080


Both the Uri class, and the interpolator can be used stand-alone, without using the rest of sttp. Conversions are available both from and to java.net.URI; Uri.toString returns the URI as a String.

## Optional values

The URI interpolator supports optional values for hosts (subdomains), query parameters and the fragment. If the value is None, the appropriate URI component will be removed. For example:

val v1 = None
val v2 = Some("v2")

println(uri"http://example.com?p1=$v1&p2=v2") // http://example.com?p2=v2 println(uri"http://$v1.$v2.example.com") // http://v2.example.com println(uri"http://example.com#$v1")
// http://example.com


## Maps and sequences

Maps, sequences of tuples and sequences of values can be embedded in the query part. They will be expanded into query parameters. Maps and sequences of tuples can also contain optional values, for which mappings will be removed if None.

For example:

val ps = Map("p1" -> "v1", "p2" -> "v2")

println(uri"http://example.com?$ps&p3=p4") // http://example.com?p1=v1&p2=v2&p3=p4  Sequences in the host part will be expanded to a subdomain sequence, and sequences in the path will be expanded to path components: val params = List("a", "b", "c")  println(uri"http://example.com/$params")
// http://example.com/a/b/c


If a string containing the protocol is embedded at the very beginning, it will not be escaped, allowing to embed entire addresses as prefixes, e.g.: uri"$endpoint/login", where val endpoint = "http://example.com/api". This is useful when a base URI is stored in a value, and can then be used as a base for constructing more specific URIs. ## Relative URIs The Uri class can represent both relative and absolute URIs. Hence, in terms of rfc3986, it is in fact a URI reference. Relative URIs can be created using the interpolator, same as absolute ones, e.g.: println(uri"/api/$params")
// /api/a/b/c


When sending requests using relative URIs, the ResolveRelativeUrisBackend backend wrapper might be useful to resolve them.

## All features combined

A fully-featured example:

import sttp.client3._
val secure = true
val scheme = if (secure) "https" else "http"
val subdomains = List("sub1", "sub2")
val vx = Some("y z")
val paramMap = Map("a" -> 1, "b" -> 2)
val jumpTo = Some("section2")

println(uri"$scheme://$subdomains.example.com?x=$vx&$paramMap#\$jumpTo")
// https://sub1.sub2.example.com?x=y+z&a=1&b=2#section2


## FAQ: encoding & decoding URI components

A common question about sttp’s Uri is why certain characters in various components (path segment, query parameters) are not encoded, even if they are given as encoded when creating the URI.

The first thing to keep in mind is that internally the URI class stores all components in a decoded form. Hence if you have an URI which in an encoded form has some special characters, such as /a%20b, the Uri data structure, which is an ordinary case class, will contain a path segment with a b.

When parsing, that includes creating URIs from constant strings e.g. uri"http://example.com/a%20b", all of the components are decoded and stored in this form. This means that Uri might not exactly preserve the original form, in which path segments or query parameters have been writte down (this might change in a future major release, though).

When serialising the Uri back to a String, the code follows the escaping rules defined in RFC 3986, which specifies the syntax of URIs.

There, you may find that for example & don’t have to be escaped in path components, or that / don’t have to be escaped in query parameters. Refer to the Rfc3986 class or the specification for a set of characters, which are allowed in each context.

This is often surprising to users, as other libraries and frameworks often escape everything, even if it’s not necessary, regardless of context.

If for some reason you do require changing the way certain components are encoded, this can be done individually for every segment (by manually changing the Uri case class), or with the [component]SegmentsEncoding methods.

For example, to always encode every non-standard character in query segments:

import sttp.model._
println(uri"http://example.com?a=b/?c%26d".querySegmentsEncoding(Uri.QuerySegmentEncoding.All))
// http://example.com?a=b%2F%3Fc%26d

// compare to:
println(uri"http://example.com?a=b/?c%26d")
// http://example.com?a=b/?c%26d